Foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nations with which UAE has diplomatic relations.

The diplomatic foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates are conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.

The United Arab Emirates has broad diplomatic and commercial relations with most countries of the world. It plays a significant role in OPEC, and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The United Arab Emirates is a member of the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies, as well as the World Bank, IMF, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and the Non-Aligned Movement. Also, it is an observer in the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Most countries have diplomatic missions in the capital Abu Dhabi with most consulates being in United Arab Emirates's largest and most populous city, Dubai.

Multilateral relations[edit]

UAE has joined the United Nations and the Arab League and has established diplomatic relations with more than 60 countries, including China, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Russia, India, Nepal, United States, and most Western European countries. It has played a moderate role within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), the United Nations, and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

The UAE believes that the Arab League needs to be restructured to become a viable institution, and would like to increase the strength and interoperability of the GCC defense forces.

The UAE is a member of the following international organizations: UN and several of its specialized agencies (ICAO, ILO, UPU, WHO, WIPO); World Bank, IMF, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), OPEC, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement.

In October 2010, the UAE was granted observer status at the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie[1]

As a result of the foreign policy of the UAE, the Emirati passport became the largest individual climber in Henley & Partners Passport Index in 2018 over the past decade, increasing its global rank by 28 places.[2] According to the Henley Passport Index, as of 28 March 2019, Emirati citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 165 countries and territories, ranking the Emirati passport 21st in the world in terms of travel freedom.[3]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 6 July 1973 See Algeria–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Algiers.
 Central African Republic 22 May 2009
  • Central African Republic has an embassy in Cairo which also covers United Arab Emirates.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in N'Djamena whose its consular areas also covers Central African Republic.
 Egypt 10 January 1972, severed diplomatic relations from 25 April 1979, Restored 11 November 1987 See Egypt–United Arab Emirates relations

Since the establishment of UAE in 1971, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates relations were always at a good level and developing at an unprecedented rate. The bond of friendship between the leaders of both countries has reflected on the growing political, economic and cultural ties between them, as a result, UAE ranks first among Arab and foreign countries investing in Egypt.[4] UAE and Egypt maintain a close economic ties and maintain trade between the two countries with imports and exports between the two sides.

 Eritrea 28 June 1993[5]
  • Eritrea has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.[6]
  • United Arab Emirates has a military base in Assab.
 Ivory Coast 30 May 1994
  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in Riyadh whose its consular areas also covers United Arab Emirates.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Dakar whose its consular areas also covers Ivory Coast.
 Kenya 5 June 1982 See Kenya–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Kenya has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Liberia 6 May 2009
  • Liberia has a Consulate General in Dubai.
  • Relations with UAE are very good with multiple bilateral agreement signed in 2019.
 Libya 24 May 1972

The UAE maintains a forward operating base at the Al-Khadim Airport, near Marj.[7][8]

 Mali 18 August 1981
  • Mali has an embassy in Riyadh whose its consular areas also covers United Arab Emirates.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Dakar whose its consular areas also covers Mali.
 Sierra Leone 21 October 1982
  • Sierra Leone has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Conakry whose its consular areas also covers Sierra Leone.
 Senegal 23 July 1973

The United Arab Emirates established an embassy in Dakar in March 2018, which was unveiled by Abdullah Bin Zayed Al Nahyan.[9] The Abu Dhabi Fund for Development loaned Senegal $13 million to invest in rural solar energy.[9]

 Somalia 29 November 1972 See Somalia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Somalia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.[10]
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Mogadishu.[11]
 Somaliland See Somaliland–United Arab Emirates relations
 Tanzania 24 November 1974 See Tanzania–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Tanzania has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
 Tunisia 14 June 1972 See Tunisia–United Arab Emirates relations

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 27 February 1974
  • Argentina has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Barbados 8 January 1996

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 January 1996.[12]

 Belize 10 December 1991[13]
 Brazil 10 June 1974
 Canada 2 February 1974 See Canada–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.[17]
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Ottawa.[18]
 Chile 23 June 1978
  • Chile has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 1 January 1976
  • Colombia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Mexico 12 September 1975 See Mexico–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Mexico has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.[19]
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Mexico City.[20]
 Peru 17 June 1986
  • Peru has a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Lima.
 United States 20 March 1972 See United Arab Emirates–United States relations

The UAE's strategic relationship with the United States dates back to the 1990 invasion of Kuwait. Subsequent to joining the military effort, the two countries signed an agreement in late 1992 permitting the United States to use some UAE bases temporarily and to pre-position supplies on UAE territory.[21] Since 25 July 1994, a formal Defense Cooperation Agreement has been in place.[22] Ten years later, despite publicly opposing the US led war in Iraq, the UAE permitted a minimal amount of US forces to support the operation from the Al Dhafra air base, Jebel Ali, and naval facilities at Fujairah. Enhancing security relations, has been a US arms sale in March 2000 to the Emirates, valued at $8 billion and included over $2 billion worth of weapons, munitions, and services.[23]

A nuclear deal was signed between the US and the UAE meant to supply nuclear technology, expertise and fuel. Despite international opposition to neighboring Iran's nuclear developments, the US is confident of the UAE's compliance with the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty and the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to refrain from enriching uranium and extracting plutonium.[24] It firmly believes this agreement "has the potential to usher in an era of responsible nuclear-energy development throughout the Middle East.”[25]

Commercially, the UAE is also the States' largest export market in the Middle East constituting $11.6 billion in exports annually. In March 2005, the US opened negotiations on a free trade agreement and despite intermittent depreciation of currencies in the Persian Gulf area, the UAE dirham remains pegged to the dollar.[26] The two countries have also maintained close ties through an exchange of cultural and educational partnerships which include the Guggenheim Museum, and a number of American Universities opening campuses in the Emirates.[27]

 Uruguay 1 April 1980
  • United Arab Emirates is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 6 April 1973 See Afghanistan–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Kabul.
 Armenia 25 June 1998
  • Diplomatic relations between Armenia and the UAE were established on 25 June 1998.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Yerevan.
 Azerbaijan 1 September 1992
  • The United Arab Emirates recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 26, 1991.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Baku.
 Bahrain 25 August 1992 See Bahrain–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Bahrain has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Manama.
 Bangladesh 9 March 1974

The diplomatic relations between Bangladesh and the United Arab Emirates are strong. The UAE is 2nd largest remittance country for Bangladesh after Saudi Arabia. The UAE also funds a lot of projects in Bangladesh.

 China 1 November 1984 See China–United Arab Emirates relations

Over the years, the relations between the UAE and China intensified, causing increasing issues with an important western ally, the US. From the Chinese technology to crude oil and to COVID-19 vaccine, the Emirates began to expand its reliance on China.[30] In 2021, the US raised multiple warnings for the Emirates to move back in its growing relations with China. The Biden administration pushed the Emirates to abandon Huawei's telecommunication network, which was a potential threat to a crucial deal of F-35 fighter jet and other military equipment between the UAE and US.[31] The US also warned the Emirates of a military facility that was secretly being built by China at a port near Abu Dhabi. The US intelligence warnings and multiple trips by the American officials to the UAE let to a halt in the construction of the facility.[32]

  • China has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Hong Kong and Shanghai.
  • The UAE and China have been strong international allies, with significant cooperation across economic, political and cultural aspects.[33][34][35][36]
 Georgia 20 October 1992

Diplomatic relations between Georgia and the UAE were initiated on 20 October 1992.[37] The countries are represented in each other through embassies.[37]

 India 23 February 1972 See India–United Arab Emirates relations

UAE enjoys close economic and cultural relations with India. Close maritime contact between India and the Arabian Peninsula date back to 3rd and 2nd millennium BC.[38] and textile and spice trade between the two countries flourished during most of 1st millennium AD.[39]

The discovery of oil allowed the UAE to increase and diversify its trade relations with India. UAE and India are each other's main trading partners. The trade totals over $75 billion (AED275.25 billion).[40] During the first half of 2010, non-oil trade between India and the UAE stood at US$20.4 billion.[41] UAE is home to more than 1.75 million Indian expatriates, making Indians the second largest ethnic group in the nation.[42]

  • India has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in New Delhi.
 Indonesia 1976 See Indonesia–United Arab Emirates relations

The diplomatic relations between Indonesia and United Arab Emirates are friendly and cordial since they were established in 1976. Both Muslim majority countries, they each recognize the other's important role its respective region. Indonesia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi, while the United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Jakarta. Both countries are partners in multilateral organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Indonesia uses the UAE as the main gate to enter the Persian Gulf and Middle East market, Indonesia's export to UAE is the largest in the Middle East. Indonesian Government has established the trade and investment representative office to promote its products in United Arab Emirates and the entire Middle East region.

 Iran 28 October 1972 See Iran–United Arab Emirates relations
 Iraq 30 April 1972 See Iraq–United Arab Emirates relations

The 1990 Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait were a shock to the UAE.[21] For the UAE, the crisis over Kuwait demonstrated a lack of Arab unity on a critical Arab issue.[21] The UAE joined the Arab states that opposed the Iraqi invasion and supported the use of force to compel Iraq's withdrawal of troops from Kuwait.[21] Prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the UAE opposed the US-led invasion.

In June 2008, the Iraqi government announced that the United Arab Emirates would send an ambassador to Baghdad within a few days. This would become the first Arab ambassador in Iraq since the kidnapping and murder of the Egyptian Ambassador Ihab el-Sherif in July 2005. This announcement was made during a surprise visit by the United Arab Emirates' Foreign Minister Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan to Baghdad on 5 June 2008. This marked the first time a high-ranking official from a Gulf state visited Iraq since March 2003.[44][45]

On 31 July 2007 following Iraq victory of the Asian Cup, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, vice-president and prime minister of the UAE awarded the Iraq national football team 20 million Dhs, ($5.2 million) for capturing the Asian Cup for the first time in the country's history.[46]

 Israel 15 September 2020[47] See Israel–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Israel has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • The United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Tel Aviv.

The Abraham Agreement has opened a new window of opportunity for normalization between Israel and the UAE. However, some analysts, such as Salem Al Ketbi, reject "zero-sum arguments" and suggest that relations with Israel and Iran do not preclude each other.[48]

 Japan 4 May 1972

Diplomatic relations between UAE and Japan were established as early as UAE's independence in December 1971.[49] The two countries had always enjoyed friendly ties and trade between each other, exports from UAE to Japan include crude oil and natural gas and imports from Japan to UAE include cars and electronics items.[49]

 Jordan 1972 Jordan was the first country to recognize UAE after forming the union in 1971. The first commander in Chief in the UAE military was Jordanian, and the first commander in Zayed Military college was Jordanian as well. Making Jordan effectively one of a key partners of forming the UAE.[50]

The relationship between UAE and Jordan dates to the 1950s, before UAE gain independence and form the union. Jordan at the time used to aid UAE with educational, military, and health care missions, when UAE was still a barren desert.[51]

 Kuwait 8 March 1972 See Kuwait–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Kuwait City.
 Maldives 15 March 1978
  • Maldives has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Malé.
 Malaysia 11 September 1974 See Malaysia–United Arab Emirates relations

United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.[52] The countries established diplomatic relations in 1983.[53]

In 2005 Malaysia's export to the UAE stood at Dh7 billion. Main export items were gold and jewellery, wood products (furniture and parts), palm oil, petroleum products and electrical appliances. In 2007, trade between Malaysia and UAE was worth MYR 14.56 billion making UAE, Malaysia's largest trading partner in West Asia as well as Malaysia being the 10th largest exporter to UAE.[54] In 2009, Malaysian ambassador Datuk Yahaya Abdul Jabar said total trade between Malaysia and UAE from January to November stood at RM19.5 billion. Malaysia's main exports to the UAE are jewellery, consumer electronics and palm oil.[55]

 North Korea 19 September 2007[56] (relations suspended on 12 October 2017)[57]
 Oman April 1973 See Oman–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Oman has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Muscat.
 Pakistan 13 January 1972 See Pakistan–United Arab Emirates relations

Pakistan and the UAE are very close allies with extremely close relations based on cultural affinities and shared faith. These relations date back to the UAE's formation in 1971, and have since developed into wide-ranging co-operation in various fields. UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance to Pakistan.[58] Sheikh Zayed International Airport in Rahim Yar Khan, in the Punjab province of Pakistan is an example of UAE's economic assistance as the late president and the founder of the UAE Sheikh Zayed donated the airport to the government of Pakistan.

UAE has emerged as one of Pakistan's major economic and trading partners. A large number of Pakistani expatriates, numbering nearly 1.2 million are gainfully employed in UAE.[citation needed]

 Qatar January 1976, diplomatic relations were severed 5 June 2017 See Qatar–United Arab Emirates relations

The UAE alongside multiple Middle Eastern and African countries cut diplomatic ties with Qatar in June 2017 due to allegations of Qatar being a state sponsor of terrorism, resulting in the Qatar diplomatic crisis. Ties were restored in January 2021.[59]

 Saudi Arabia 21 August 1974 See Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
 South Korea 18 June 1980[60]
  • South Korea has an embassy Abu Dhabi.[60]
  • The United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Seoul.
 Sri Lanka 19 July 1979 See Sri Lanka-United Arab Emirates relations
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • The United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Colombo.
 Thailand 12 December 1975
  • Thailand has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Bangkok
 Turkey 21 March 1973 See Turkey–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Turkey has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus has a Representative Office in Abu Dhabi.[61]
 Vietnam 1 August 1993 See United Arab Emirates–Vietnam relations
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Ha Noi.
 Yemen See United Arab Emirates-Yemen relations

The UAE and Yemen have a complex and strained relationship, as the UAE has played a significant role in regional politics in Yemen, and has at various points been an adversary of the country, as the UAE's involvement in Yemen, for example the United Arab Emirates takeover of Socotra, and its support for the Southern Transitional Council, a secessionist organization in Southern Yemen, has been a source of tension between the two countries, and has contributed to the ongoing conflict and humanitarian crisis in the country. Furthermore, the UAE has been involved in other efforts in Yemen that have been controversial. The country has been accused of backing local militias and separatist groups that have sought to gain more autonomy or independence from the central government. Some critics have accused the UAE of using these groups to further its own interests in the region, rather than working towards a broader peace and stability in Yemen.

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 3 June 1992
  • Albania has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
 Austria
  • Austria has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Vienna.
 Denmark 18 January 1975 See Denmark–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates is accredited to Denmark from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
 Estonia 28 March 2006 See Estonia–United Arab Emirates relations
 Finland 21 February 1975
  • Finland has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Helsinki.
 France 5 January 1972 See France–United Arab Emirates relations

The UAE's relationship with France has been strategically important as it negotiated a defence cooperation agreement and remains one of the country's primary providers of military material.[62] France and the UAE have signed a defence cooperation agreement in order to diversity its procurement from solely the US.[62] Culturally, as the Sorbonne and Louvre are both establishing extensions in the UAE,[63] a plan is in the works to recreate a miniature Lyon city in Dubai complete with public squares, restaurants and museums.[64]

On 25 May 2009, the French president Nicolas Sarkozy visited the UAE, Abu Dhabi where he along with UAE's president Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan formally opened a French military base in the United Arab Emirates. This would become France's first permanent base in the Persian Gulf, hosting up to 500 French troops.[65] In addition to the inauguration of Peace Camp, Nicolas Sarkozy visited the site of a Louvre Museum branch which France is opening in the United Arab Emirates. Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Minister of Foreign Affairs, said that the co-operation with France is a top priority for the UAE's foreign policy.[66]

 Germany 17 May 1972 See Germany–United Arab Emirates relations

German exports amount to 5.84 billion Euros.[67] German companies significantly contribute to the UAE's ongoing infrastructure projects and play a leading role in the country's alternative energy developments.[68] Consequently, German Business Park, an area designed to house several of the already seven hundred present companies and their logistical needs, is in the midst of construction.[69]

 Greece November 1973 See Greece–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Athens.
 Ireland 8 October 1974
  • Ireland has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Dublin.
 Kosovo 14 October 2008[70][71] See Kosovo–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.[72][73]
  • United Arab Emirates is accredited to Kosovo from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Netherlands 24 May 1972
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in The Hague.
 North Macedonia 27 May 1996

North Macedonia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.[74]

 Poland 4 September 1989 See Poland–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Russia 13 November 1985 See Russia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Russia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Moscow.
 Serbia 21 March 2007 (before 15 November 1986) See Serbia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Serbia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • The United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Belgrade.
 Spain 10 November 1972 See Spain–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a commercial office in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Madrid.
 Ukraine 15 October 1992
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • When Russia invaded Ukraine in 2022, the UAE abstained in a U.N. Security Council vote to condemn Russia's invasion.[75] The UAE later condemned Russia in a U.N. General Assembly vote.[76]
 United Kingdom 6 December 1971 See United Arab Emirates–United Kingdom relations
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate general in Dubai.
  • The British Council maintains offices in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ras Al Khaimah.[77]
  • The United Arab Emirates has an embassy in London.

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 16 March 1975 See Australia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Canberra.
 New Zealand 20 May 1985
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Wellington.
 Solomon Islands 29 April 2010

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 April 2010.[78]

 Tuvalu 29 March 2010

The UAE and Tuvalu established diplomatic relations on 29 March 2010.[79]

Territorial disputes[edit]

  • Location and status of boundary with Saudi Arabia is not final, de facto boundary reflects 1974 agreement; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far north;
  • UAE claims two islands through the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah in the Persian Gulf that are currently controlled by Iran: Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchak in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran);
  • UAE claims an island through the Emirate of Sharjah in the Persian Gulf that is currently administered by Iran (called Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran) - over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since 1992, including access restrictions and a military build-up on the island.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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