Lunéville

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Lunéville
Theater, whose archway gives access to the château gardens.
Theater, whose archway gives access to the château gardens.
Coat of arms of Lunéville
Location of Lunéville
Lunéville is located in France
Lunéville
Lunéville
Lunéville is located in Grand Est
Lunéville
Lunéville
Coordinates: 48°35′22″N 6°30′06″E / 48.5894°N 6.5017°E / 48.5894; 6.5017Coordinates: 48°35′22″N 6°30′06″E / 48.5894°N 6.5017°E / 48.5894; 6.5017
CountryFrance
RegionGrand Est
DepartmentMeurthe-et-Moselle
ArrondissementLunéville
CantonLunéville-1 and 2
IntercommunalityTerritoire de Lunéville à Baccarat
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Catherine Paillard[1]
Area
1
16.34 km2 (6.31 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019)[2]
17,867
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
54329 /54300
Websiteluneville.fr
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Lunéville (French pronunciation: ​[lynevil] ; German, obsolete: Lünstadt [ˈlʏnʃtat] (listen)) is a commune in the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle.

It is a subprefecture of the department and lies on the river Meurthe at its confluence with the Vezouze.

History[edit]

Église Saint-Jacques in Lunéville, established by Stanislaus I of Poland in 1745.

Lunéville was a renowned resort in the 18th century, known as the capital of Lorraine. The grand Château de Lunéville, built in 1702 for Leopold, Duke of Lorraine to replace an older palace, was the residence of the duke of Lorraine until the duchy was annexed by France in 1766. The château was designed in the style of Versailles to satisfy Leopold's wife, Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, the niece of Louis XIV, and became known as the "Versailles of Lorraine". It includes a chapel designed by Germain Boffrand. Leopold and his wife were the parents of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (through him they were the grandparents of Marie Antoinette).

The last duke of Lorraine was Stanislaus I, the former king of Poland. A devout Catholic, an author and a philanthropist, Stanislaus had a church built and several follies in his gardens for the amusement and education of visiting Polish nobility and followers of the Enlightenment. The more famous visitors to his court were Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, André Morellet, and Montesquieu. After the death of his father-in-law in 1766, Louis XV of France annexed the duchy and turned the castle into a barracks, but much of the original construction has survived, and what remains is open to the public and the château's intricate parterre gardens, designed by Yves Hours (a pupil of André Le Nôtre) in 1711 and Louis de Nesle in 1724, are a public park today.

It was over the nearby Parroy Forest, directly east of Lunéville, only some 11 months after the outbreak of World War I, that the first aerial victory by a fighter aircraft armed with a synchronised machine gun occurred on July 1, 1915, as the German Fliegertruppe officer Kurt Wintgens forced down an Aeronautique Militaire Morane-Saulnier L parasol monoplane. Neither member of the French air crew was seriously wounded, while the French aircraft's Gnome Lambda engine received multiple hits to disable the aircraft.[3][4]

Treaties[edit]

The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House, one of the houses built up against the château gardens of Lunéville on 9 February 1801, between the French Republic and the Austrian Empire by Count Ludwig von Cobenzl and Joseph Bonaparte.

Another treaty, signed in Germany, was the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871), which made Lunéville into a border town, attracting people from Alsace and Moselle who relocated to keep their French nationality. A new period of economic prosperity, known as the Belle Époque, restored some of the glory of Stanislas's ducal court of the 18th century.

Industry[edit]

Lunéville faience was made famous for its widely copied collectable figurines mostly designed by Paul-Louis Cyfflé. This group is from 1770-1780, Sèvres museum collection.

Lunéville faience, a kind of unglazed faience produced from 1723 at Lunéville by Jacques Chambrette, became the Manufacture Royale du Roi de Pologne (“Royal Factory of the King of Poland”) after Stanislaus sponsored it in 1749. The earthenware first became famous for its detailed figurines and in the 20th century for its art deco designs, and it still exists today as "Terres d'Est".[5]

In 1858, the glass factory of Croismare was built. It became famous when the Müller brothers settled there in 1897 and began creating Art Deco glass designs.

Louis Ferry-Bonnechaux discovered a technique using beads and sequins on embroidery in 1865. His craft was widely copied and became known as Lunéville Point, and its heritage can still be seen in modern haute couture.

A subsidiary of the Dietrich company, Lorraine-Dietrich moved to Lunéville after the 1871 treaty of Frankfurt. Today it is known for its trailers, but it started off as a manufacturer of cars and railway equipment.

Demographics[edit]

The population of Lunéville in 2019 was 17,867.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 11,691—    
1800 10,436−1.61%
1806 11,555+1.71%
1821 11,247−0.18%
1831 12,378+0.96%
1836 12,798+0.67%
1841 12,285−0.81%
1846 12,278−0.01%
1851 12,476+0.32%
1856 15,301+4.17%
1861 15,528+0.29%
1872 12,369−2.05%
1876 16,041+6.71%
1881 18,136+2.49%
1886 20,500+2.48%
1891 21,542+1.00%
1896 22,599+0.96%
1901 23,269+0.59%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1906 24,266+0.84%
1911 25,587+1.07%
1921 24,366−0.49%
1926 23,263−0.92%
1931 24,668+1.18%
1936 23,665−0.83%
1946 20,377−1.48%
1954 22,690+1.35%
1962 21,618−0.60%
1968 23,177+1.17%
1975 22,709−0.29%
1982 21,468−0.80%
1990 20,711−0.45%
1999 20,200−0.28%
2007 20,078−0.08%
2012 19,855−0.22%
2017 18,287−1.63%
Source: EHESS[6] and INSEE (1968-2017)[7]

Notable people[edit]

Lunéville was the birthplace of :

Geology[edit]

In 1874, a fossil Bennettitalean stem excavated from the area near the city was described as Cylindropodium liasinum by Saporta, which was reassigned in 2016 to the genus Cycadeoidea under Cycadeoidea cylindrica

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires" (in French). data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises. 13 September 2022.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. ^ Grosz, Peter M., Windsock Datafile No. 91, Fokker E.I/II, Albatros Publications, Ltd. 2002. ISBN No. 1-902207-46-7.
  4. ^ Sands, Jeffrey, "The Forgotten Ace, Ltn. Kurt Wintgens and his War Letters", Cross & Cockade USA, Summer 1985.
  5. ^ Website Luneville faience
  6. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Lunéville, EHESS. (in French)
  7. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE

External links[edit]