# Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/February 2004 II

## foreign abrev for word "company"

I am stumped for an assignment due today. My instructor wants 5 abbreviations for the word "company" in different languages. I know in french it's SA. Could anyone please help me? Thanks.

From [1] I find the following for compnay
• France - CIE
• Germany - AG
• The Netherlands - BV
Jor 20:16, 11 Feb 2004 (UTC)
And the following for incorporated
• Sweeden - AB
• Norway - ASA
• Germany - GmbH
• Japan - LTD
• The Netherlands - NV
• UK - PLC
• France - SA
• Spain - SA de CV
• Italy - SpA
Hope it helped. Gentgeen 18:04, 11 Feb 2004 (UTC)

In Greece anonymous companies (SA) are named as AE (Anonymi Eteria = anonymous company). Other Greek abbreviations for companies are EPE, AEBE, ABEE. Optim 03:02, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Further to Gentgreen's list, if I remember my business studies correctly, both PLC and LTD are used for companies, PLC for Public Limited Companies, and LTD for private limited companies (LTD standing for Limited) Silverfish 15:32, 28 Feb 2004 (UTC)

That's "Ltd" as the individual letters don't stand for anything. Companies operating in Wales can use either the English abbreviations or their Welsh equivalents, CCC Cwmni Cyhoeddus Cyfyngedig and Cyf. Arwel 15:49, 28 Feb 2004 (UTC)

This is probably - indeed, without any doubt - too late, but in Hebrew, "limited liability" is denoted by 'בע"מ' (pronounced "ba'am"). --Itai 22:54, 3 Mar 2004 (UTC)

## Whales and Dolphins

I heard that anccient whales and dolphins used to walk on land. Is this true? Thanks, Gino gakmariutto@tds.net

No, not exactly. They had remote ancestors, 50 million years or so ago, that walked on land. These had even remoter ancestors, more than 250 million years ago I'd say without looking it up, that swam in the water, which was natural, since they were fish. This all needs to be preceded by a "some people believe", since some people believe in making inferences from the evidence of geology and biology, and some people don't. Dandrake 19:24, Feb 11, 2004 (UTC)
To put it another way, yes they did. ;) Well, Dandrake's right of course, but I believe the point being made in the statement that you heard is that whales evolved from creatures that left the water to walk on land... only to later head back to the water. This is, of course, the case for all aquatic mammals. Whales and dolphins however (unlike pinnipeds) have lost all external vestiges of their (rear) legs. --Dante Alighieri | Talk 20:25, 11 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Another piece of data is whales with atavistic rear legs. -SheikYerBooty 02:23, Feb 17, 2004 (UTC)

## vietnam veterans

I COULD BE WRONG BUT I THOUGHT SOMEONE MIGHT FIND THE INFORMATION ON THE FOLLOWING WEB-SITES OF SOME INTEREST. htt://www.2ndbattalion94thartillery.com/chas/agentorangedisussion.htm and htt://www.2ndbattalion94thartillery.com/chas/agentorangemedicallssues.htm

I haven't been able to get the sites to open, but if you judge them worthwhile, feel free to add them as "External Links" to an article of interest, or summarize whatever information is contained in them and add it to a Wikipedia article. If you're not sure how to do this, feel free to drop me a note on my user discussion page, and I'll walk you through it (it's not complicated) as best I can. -Itai 22:40, 15 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Transformation of a Conic

I am obviously terrible at computational geometry. And I got such a good answer here the last time I asked that I thought I'd ask for something else.

For those of you who saw my previous cone-plane-intersection question, I've reduced it to this one.

I have a conic expressed as:

a*x^2+b*y^2+c*x*y+d*x+e*y+f=0


What can I do to make the x*y go away? Like, maybe transform it to a u,v space so that I can make it

A*(u-u0)^2+B*(v-v0)^2=1


I would particularly like it if the area of the conic was invariant in the transformation. If I performed the same transformation on a line that intercepted the conic, would the segment of the conic bordered by the line keep it's area?

Thanks. moink 17:07, 12 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Substituting
${\displaystyle x=u\cos(\theta )+v\sin(\theta )}$
${\displaystyle y=-u\sin(\theta )+v\cos(\theta )}$
${\displaystyle u=x\cos(\theta )-y\sin(\theta )}$
${\displaystyle v=x\sin(\theta )+y\cos(\theta )}$
should get rid of the x*y thing (without adding a u*v thing), with the right θ. Haven't checked if I worked it out correctly, but maybe
${\displaystyle \theta ={\frac {\arctan {\frac {c}{b-a}}}{2}}}$
Κσυπ Cyp   18:37, 12 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Fixed formula, now should hopefully now at least work for a=1, b=2, c=3. (Probably forgot the 2 in (u+v)²=u²+v²+2uv.) Κσυπ Cyp   18:46, 12 Feb 2004 (UTC)
P.S. It preserves all areas and lengths, since the transformation is a plain rotation. Κσυπ Cyp   18:52, 12 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## UK PRIME MINISTER'S COUNTY HOME

COULD ANYONE TELL ME WHO WAS THE FIRST UK PRIME MINISTER TO OCCUPY CHEQUERS?

MANY THANK

BARBARAC

According the BBC Radio 4 page it was Lloyd George who was the first Prime Minister to use Chequers. In January 1921. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/sceptred_isle/page/187.shtml? --Dieter Simon 00:17, 13 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Soldiers on the Plains of Abraham

Is there a list of names of the soldiers who fought on the Plains of Abraham? I am specifically looking for the names of soldiers who came from other countries to join in the fight. Thanks, Jan

Just to clarify the above - the plains of abraham are located outside quebec. The above is (almost certainly) referring to the 1759 battle of Quebec -- Battle of the Plains of Abraham. →Raul654 07:46, Feb 11, 2004 (UTC)
Probably not. If anyone bothered to write down the names of British conscripts and mercenaries 250 years ago, that list was probably destroyed long ago. --Smack 22:35, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Printed Dictionary

I am interested in a printed dictionary of common words concerning all PC-vocabulary. Where can I order this? Is such a book available? Thank you for your answer in advance Yours sincerely,

Renate M. Degenfeld Austria

I found a few on Amazon.com. I'm not recommending the books in specific or that you buy them on Amazon, but they do seem to be the sort of book you're looking for. Click here --Dante Alighieri | Talk 20:21, 10 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## ggg

Dear Sir

I am a researcher in Hefei Physical Science Institue of Chinese Academy of Sciences. I would like to buy a Nd:GGG laser crystal rod with the size 8mm in diameter and 100mm in length. I am to useing rod pumped by flashlamp. On the homepage, I konw you can you can provide Nd:GGG crystal. Please quote for the following products.

Type: laser rod Material: Nd:GGG Nd concentration: 1.1 to 1.5 at.% Orientation: [010] +/-2 deg. Diameter: 8 (+0.0/-0.1) mm Length: 100 (+1/-1) mm Surface quality: 20/10 scr/dig Surface flatness: lambda/10 @ 633nm Parallelism: < 30 arc. sec. Perpendicularity: 15 arc. min Chamfer: 0.2 mm Coating: both faces AR/AR @ 1061nm, R<0.2% Quantity: 1 pc.

Can you tell me more detailed messages, such as its price, how to buy it and so on? You kind response would be appreciated greatly!

Best regards!

Jiang Haihe

P.O.Box 1125
HeFei,Anhui,230031
P.R.China
Tel-No.: 551-5591667
Fax: 551-5591270
E-Mail: hjiang@aiofm.ac.cn

I don't know about the price &/c, but this is a Wiki here. We don't sell crystals or lasers or that kind of thing. Dysprosia 09:03, 13 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Maybe *you* don't ;) →Raul654 22:21, Feb 13, 2004 (UTC)

## Leap year on Sunday

Does anyone have the answer to these questions?

1. When was the last time Sunday landed on a leap year?

2. When will be the next time that Sunday lands on a leap year?

John

They happen every 28 years. The next time will be 2032. The last was 1976. →Raul654 22:01, Feb 13, 2004 (UTC)

## Kathleen Kennedy

Did Kathleen Kennedy give up her US citizenship? How else would she have a title of nobility? --Jiang 22:23, 13 Feb 2004 (UTC)

It is my belief, possibly mistaken, that US citizens may hold titles of nobility. We are not prevented from having them...the Constitution only prevents the granting of titles by the US, or the official legal recognition of other country's titles. Her noble status elsewhere wouldn't offer her any status under US law that she did not already have. I'm afraid this is all based on a history major's memory, though, so someone else may have books at hand that offer a more complete answer? Jwrosenzweig 22:38, 13 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Correct. Jamie Lee Curtis for example, is also Lady Haden-Guest through her husband inheriting a barony -- she actually attended the State Opening of Parliament the last year before her husband lost his seat in the House of Lords when it was reformed. -- Arwel 22:53, 13 Feb 2004 (UTC)
There was actually an unsuccessful attempt to pass a constitutional amendment against US citizens taking titles of nobility. See The missing thirteenth amendment. -- Jmabel 00:39, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)

But when US citizens are knighted (e.g. Rudy Giuliani, Steven Spielberg, Wesley Clark) they are not entitled to the title "Sir". The Constitution states "No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State." --Jiang

No, a US citizen who is not employed by the Federal Government can use any title he's entitled to (and probably those he's not entitled to as well). The non-use of the "Sir" by those who are not British citizens is a British restriction on the honor, not a restriction by the U.S. Constitution. The passage you cite restricts only employees of the federal governemnt. - Nunh-huh 06:58, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Yes, the applicable part of that constitutional quote is And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them... (the United States). The restriction on foreigners using British honours is a British one, also affecting Irishmen like Bob Geldof and Terry Wogan. -- Arwel 13:23, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## B.F. Skinner and Conditioned Behaviour

What behaviour did B. F. Skinner agree to be the only one that is not conditioned? --Xiaopo's Talk 23:43, Feb 13, 2004 (UTC)

Is this a trivia quiz, or what? One would have to guess suckling, but I don't have a source for this? -- Jmabel 00:41, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Pope John Paul 2

Can anyone tell me the approximate height and weight of his holiness? No, sorry, but you might find this interesting. Pope trivia

At the time he became Pope in 1978, at 58 1/2 years old, he stood five feet ten and one half inches with an athletic build. His weight is not mentioned, but has probably varied a great deal since then. Szulc, Tad. Pope John Paul II the Biography. Pocket Books, 1995. pg. 303 --GUllman 01:49, 3 Mar 2004 (UTC)

## anthony

I am researching Colonel Anthony Van Egmond.Specifically his life prior to his involvement in the 1837 Rebellion in Upper Canada. His place of birth, family, religion, schools, military service, years in Pennesylvania, trek to Upper Canada and association with the Huron Tract grant are of particular interest. (Mary P Smith, moved from Anthony Van Egmond by Dysprosia)

## grep with context

Does anyone know where I can find a variation of the command line utility grep that shows the lines occurring before and after the line that matches a pattern? Bevo 15:24, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)

GNU grep will do that. grep -A 2 -B 2 foo will show 2 lines before and after each match. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 19:11, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Thanks! With that knowledge I was able to find a port that I can use at http://unxutils.sourceforge.net/ Bevo 19:37, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)
If you're stuck on windows, a download of cygwin is probably be best medium-term solution, most particularly because you get a decent shell. No matter how good a win32 port of a unix utility is, you'll be in pathname and escaped-character hell when you try to run it under (gulp) batchfiles. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 19:56, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Ain't it the truth! <grin> - Bevo 01:03, 15 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Man U

Please could you tell me who was the captain of Manchester United's winning side in the 1999 European Cup Final Thanks Liza

curiosly, I've failed to find that info. Roy Keene was their captain for most of the campaign, but he was suspended for the European Cup Final, and none of the reports that I can find say who replaced him. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 15:22, 15 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Peter Schmeichel in his last game for the club. Mintguy (T) 08:37, 16 Feb 2004 (UTC)

The article, Hadron, contains this assertion:

 The class of hadrons is further subdivided into three subclasses


Does Physics have a formal classification system like Biology does? Bevo 14:56, 15 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Well, I suspose whatever the prevailing model is will determine how particles are classified (like Standard Model). -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 15:23, 15 Feb 2004 (UTC)
I suppose it depends on what you mean by "formal". What is it that makes biology's system formal? →Raul654 15:54, Feb 15, 2004 (UTC)
I'm looking at it from a Wikipedia point of view. Typically when you find an article in a specific bird, say Barn owl, you get very detailed "Scientific classification" information. You can then drill down on Scientific classification to get that concept "formally" defined. I'm wondering if there is some sort of equivalent tradition in Particle physics that we could use to expand Scientific classification beyond Biology. Bevo 16:06, 15 Feb 2004 (UTC)
In that case, yes. List of particles contains a very good summary. →Raul654 16:09, Feb 15, 2004 (UTC)

## where to find a book

I am looking for "Emilo" a spanish book published back in 1930s which is currently out of print. Any help? User:141

• Have you tried ABE Books? By registering a want-list with them (and waiting long enough), I've found several obscure things and also discovered that some weren't nearly so obscure as I thought. There are other services, of course, but this is the one that has worked for me. Dandrake 07:39, Feb 16, 2004 (UTC)

## wiki projects - the Hungarian language

I am contemplating to post an article on the Hungarian language. I need encouragement, though. You can find my postings to this date as items in discussion columns. My pseudo-name is apogr. Could you check whether they are worthwhile and if I should proceed with then project? Regards 81.182.94.17 07:32, 16 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Oracle Corporation Campus in Redwood Shores, California

Does anyone know when the main Oracle Corporation Campus in Redwood Shores, California was built?

Thanks, JS

This article here, about the history of Redwood Shores, says that the Centrum Office Complex (which Oracle moved into and later took over) was completed in 1989. I'm not sure if that's the same place that serves as their main campus, but I think it probably is. Hope that helps. -- Vardion 04:47, 19 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Locating poem:

Would like the original of this german poem, about the author's impending death from stomach cancer; don't know author's name either. I know some of it in the english translation: 'tis just a prick, 'tis scarce a pain Just felt to which no name I give Henceforth it speaks again, again Uneasy now I have to live." .... If to complain, I try, of what? I cannot put it into words .... Until at last, I really know That with death's shaft, I cannot cope.

You're looking for Theodor Storm's Beginn des Endes -- available here. Jwrosenzweig 18:41, 16 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Compactness and collections of sets

• Is a finite collection of compact sets compact?
• Is an infinite collection of compact sets compact?
• Is the complement of a set of algebric numbers compact?

-- Taku 19:11, Feb 16, 2004 (UTC)

## Why 2 in Missouri?

As a bonus for one of my Finance classes, we were asked to find the person's name that started the Fed in Missouri. We were told that he/she had a strong influence, and that is why there are two banks in the state of Missouri. Who is this person? Thanks.

[2] might give some clues. So might [3]. Good luck. If you get a solid answer, please let us know so we can work it into the relevant article. -- Jmabel 07:30, 21 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Obtaining Michael Kamen/Metallica concert sheet music

What is the process/procedure for obtaining sheet music that was used for a single event but may not have been release to the general public?

Specifically: The sheet music Michael Kamen wrote for the 1998 concert with Metallica.

## Public DNS Servers

My ISP's DNS server is broken. Where can I find public DNS servers (free)? Ric 00:10, 17 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Well, a bit of googling turned up this list of suggestions:

ns.worldnet.att.net AT&T-WorldNet (USA, www.worldnet.att.net) nameserver.concentric.net Concentric (USA, www.concentric.net) arl-name-svc-1.compuserve.com CompuServe (USA, www.aol.com) ns.psi.net PSInet (USA, www.psi.net) dns1.sympatico.ca Sympatico (Canada, www.sympatico.ca) pns.dtag.de T-Online (Deutschland, www.dtag.de) dns-sol.swissonline.ch SwissOnline (Switzerland, www.swissonline.ch) main.piter.net PiterNet (Russia, www.piter.net)

I don't know if any of those are anywhere near you, but in general I think any DNS server will accept requests from anywhere. I might be wrong on that, but it would certainly be worth just trawling the help pages of other local ISPs and trying the dns settings listed for them. - IMSoP 00:52, 17 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Are you asking who you can run the DNS for your own website--i.e., your website can't be reached because your provider's nameservers are down? If you know what you're doing, try ZoneEdit. This is a paid service, but your first five domains are free, There are other, completely free services, like EveryDNS.

## Oregon Cities that no longer exist

Is there a reference that I might access via net or books that you can recommend that would give me information about cities in Oregon that no longer exist? Also, I would like to access so Oregon maps dating back to the lat 1800's and early 1900's.

Sandy

• Sandy,

Check out the links here. There are several maps and gazetteers that you can find there. - Nunh-huh 02:12, 17 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## What was the Brest-Litovsk Soviet Border?

My impression was that the border of Soviet Russia after Brest-Litovsk was the same as the border of the Russian Federation today. Could anyone tell me whether this was the case, or was the actual border somewhat different? →GCarty

The Brest-Litovsk border was the Russian/Soviet (technically, Russian) border with the rest of Europe at following their peace with germany in 1917. Between 1917 and now, there have been some minor changes. →Raul654 14:02, Feb 17, 2004 (UTC)

Oh, and for the record, no. The Russian federation of today does not include Ukraine, Moldova, and several other present-day countries that were part of a "Russia" following Russia's exit of WWI. →Raul654 15:59, Feb 17, 2004 (UTC)

Eh? I'm sure that Brest-Litovsk created an 'independent' Ukraine (actually a German puppet). After Germany surrendered in 1918 Ukraine became genuinely independent, but was reconquered by the Soviets in 1921. The main area I'm not sure about is Belarus. →GCarty

## Leap year starting on Thursday

How often does leap year start on Thursday, thus producing 5 Sundays in February?

Same question was asked above. Leap days occur on Sundays (thus, February starts a leap year on a thursday) every 28 years. →Raul654 16:11, Feb 17, 2004 (UTC)

My ancestor was Charles "Empty Head" Timblin and was well-known for appearing as Jeter in Tobacco Road. My Dad as a child describes his huge fancy car and his wife in furs and jewelry so apparently he did very well at it. Do you have any information on him or can you direct me to where I can find it? Thank you very much. Kerry

Kerry, perhaps you're referring to an actor? The IMDB has a very small page on a Charles Timblin here. There was also a Charles Timblin who taught at Washington State University over a century ago, I believe, but I don't think that's who you're looking for. Perhaps try a university library that could help you search old newspapers for articles on the actor or his movies/shows? Just a thought. Jwrosenzweig 01:05, 18 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Kerry,

     My grandmother Edna Timblin use to talk about a relative called emty head timblin, he was inVaudville. Darlene thebinks45@hotmail.com


## Saracen's Contribution to Science, Pros and Cons

Recently, while visiting my daughter in Singapore, I did a random searach for "saracens". The website I selected was http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saracens I have now gone back to this site on numerous occasions but cannot find the article. Unfortunately, I also do not recall the name of the author.

It would be very muchapprecited if you could assist me in finding this article.

Thank you, Kenneth T. Hern kthern@txucom.net

Just to prevent him from being bombarded, I'll field this one (Unless someone else wants to). →Raul654 03:45, Feb 18, 2004 (UTC)

## Regarding the GNU License Agreement.

{apparently, no question here}

## Paintings of the High Tatras

I am looking for prints of paintings of the High Tatras, and/or posters. Any suggestions?

There are several paintings at this link. RickK 03:14, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Elastic Collision

can you show how you derive the equation for V2F=V1o(2m1/m1+m2) for an elastic collision using the two formulas for conservation of momentum and conservation of kenetic energy?

Please e-mail me back at ryhill15@hotmail.com

Conservation of momentum: m1*V1o+m2*V2o=m1V1f+m2*V2f
Conservation of kinetic energy: m1*V1o^2+m2*V2o^2=m1*V1f^2+m2*V2f^2
Solve the first equation for V1f, substitute it into the second eq'n, and see what you get. moink 05:10, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Red River and Erhai Lake

Does the Red River begin in Erhai Lake (Yunnan province, China) or not? On some maps I see, it looks like it does, but on other maps, it looks like it doesn't. I've removed the mention of Erhai Lake (or Lake Erhai, or Erhai, or whatever you prefer to call it) that I placed in the Red River article, but I'll put it back if I can confirm that the river does indeed begin there. Please respond either here, on my talk page, or by fixing the article itself. Thanks. -- Vardion 05:00, 19 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## blue oyster cult

what are the band members names

According to http://www.blueoystercult.com/Band-main.html:

• Eric Bloom
• Buck Dharma
• Allen Lanier
• Danny Miranda
• Bobby Rondinelli

RickK 03:19, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Jose Gonzaelz Clemente & Co.

While on vacation in January in the Dominican Republic my husband found a bottle in the ocean. We have been searching for any information on Jose Gonzaelz Clemente & Co. Mayaguez, P.R. we assume it is an older rum bottle. We are interested in finding out how old the company is and if they still exhist. Thank you, Julie e-mail address Jules0155@aol.com

That's certainly a typo for "Jose Gonzalez Clemente & Co." See for example http://www.rum.cz/galery/cam/pr/gonzalez/. (& I'll email her) -- Jmabel 23:20, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Ancient Egyptians' hair colour: Only black?

Hello. Will I be wrong if I argue that all Ancient Egyptians much have had only black hair? Is is possible to say that an Ancient Egyptian could have been redhaired or blonde? Answer with email or here. Thank you! Optim 02:45, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

I'm currently reading "River God : A Novel of Ancient Egypt" by Wilbur Smith, which he *claims* is a rewording of ancient Egyptian texts, in which one of the main characters is blond. But his ancestor was a female slave from somewhere north. RickK 03:09, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Thank you so much for your comment. Also, Cleopatra is listed under List of famous redheads - is this correct? Optim 03:17, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Cleopatra wasn't really Egyptian though, she was Greek. Adam Bishop 06:02, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
I found this from the Royal Ontario Museum: [4]. Maybe that will help. I think I also remember reading somewhere that Ramses II had red hair. (Looking this up on Google also seems to bring up a bunch of racist stuff, like Stormfront...) Adam Bishop 03:14, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Thanks! Optim 03:17, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Registered organisations, charities, etc

I am interested to know how to get a list of all legally registered organisations, charities, non-profits etc which exist in one country or city, without asking for a specific organisation. Is this possible? Do you know any internet sites which could help me? And also, how could I get such a list for old organisations which do not exist anymore. Thanks. Use my email or answer here. Optim 03:07, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

There is no general method to do this; it's going to be different for every country, and with some countries it's going to be different for every city. Can you be more specific as to what you are looking for? You are presumably not going to be trying to list every organization in the world, so if you narrow this question there is a better chance someone can give you a useful answer. Also, just what do you mean by "organisations"? Are you trying, for example, to get complete listings of the teams in every amateur sports league, for example? Such exhaustive completeness will be difficult for even one large city, let alone a broader scale. -- Jmabel 23:17, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
For charities in England and Wales, you might try the Charity Commission search page. --Camembert

## A custom

In Greece, When a person dies, the Orthodox christian church places papers for public view (in the streets) which look like this: "Person A.Name, XX years old, died" etc to inform the public about his/her memorial etc. Is this a custom of all orthodox churches or all christian churches? Is it country-specific? How about non-christian cultures? It seems in Asia they don't have this custom, since in China I know that when a person dies they don't put papers with his/her name in public. Optim 03:13, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

• In the United States it's customary to have an obituary printed in the local newspapers, but as far as I know that's the only such notice that's usually circulated. Isomorphic 06:08, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
• Thanks for answering. In Greece newspapers are also used in that way sometimes. Optim 06:43, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
• In the UK it's common for either the relatives or the funeral director to place a small classified advertisement in the "Deaths" column of the local newspaper (the first part of the paper my mother always read!), which will say when the death happened and what the funeral arrangements are. Less commonly an obituary will be published a few weeks after the funeral. -- Arwel 23:45, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## history and philosophy of linear equation.

Can you please brief me about history and philosophy of linear equations.

Use http://ccins.camosun.bc.ca/~trushel/math164/linearalgebra/section2/lineq.htm as a starting point (a site found using the search terms linear equation mathematician at Google...you might want to try that also and explore other sites uncovered that way) Bevo 18:40, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## demand d'iformation (Jet Li)

je suis un amateur des arts martiaux (kung-fu wushu;kung_fu win chin...)alors je me suis tombÃ?Â© dans une site sous titre "jet li" le nom de mon mÃ?Â©illeur star.ma question est ce que si possible d'avoir l'email de mon hereo "jet li " ou quelque chose qui peut m'aidÃ?Â© Ã?Â Ã?Â©tre en contact dirÃ?Â©ct avec lui?

Hard to decipher through the combination of French langauge and funny characters, but I believe this person wants an email address for Jet Li. -- Jmabel 23:12, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Easy question...

Hello!

Such a lot of hard work has gone into your project. WOW! Very impressive!

I am looking high and low, seemingly, for a list of at least some of the cities in the U.S. which share the same name.

Any directives you could spare?

I thank you.

G. Erickson

You might start by looking at Wikipedia:Multiple-place names -- Jmabel 23:10, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Secret ballot

When was the secret ballot introduced in American elections? Mintguy (T) 23:22, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

• The secret ballot is called the Australian ballot, and it was brought to the U.S. by the progressive movement. It was adopted by many states in the 1880s. Kingturtle 23:31, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Hm... I thought it would have been earlier. It was universally adopted in Britain in 1872. I hadn't considered that different states would have introduced it at different times. What was the last state to adopt it then?

• The first city in the U.S. to have the Australian ballot was Louisville, Kentucky in 1888. Later that year, Massachusetts became the first state, and New York the second state. By the end of the next year, eight more states were onboard. By 1900, 39 of the 45 states had Australian ballots. I do not know which states were the last to switch to this system. Kingturtle 23:52, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
• P.S. There is nothing in the U.S. constitution that says how the votes for President are to be tallied or that a popular election has to take place at all. Kingturtle 23:54, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
• Indeed, it was never the original intention that the US President be elected by popular vote; the electoral college system was devised so that each state could invent their own method, whether it be popular vote, picking a name out a hat, or letting their members vote any which way they like (which they still can do). Calum
Thank you. I'm indebted. Mintguy (T) 00:03, 21 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Adrian Nastase and "illegal activities by religious sects"

The article on Romanian Prime Minister Adrian Nastase contains the intriguing phrase, "Recording Secretary of parliamentary commission on judicial problems and human rights with reference to illegal activities by religious sects." About 2 months ago I tried asking on the talk page there, "What was going on that there would be such a commission?" No one answered, so I'm taking my question here in hopes that someone has a clue. -- Jmabel 07:20, 21 Feb 2004 (UTC)

The only commission about sects which I can link Adrian Nastase to seems to be a European Parliament one (rather than, say, a Romanian one). I think that must be the one that the article refers to. Its report is available here, and seems to indicate (section II A) that it was prompted just by general concern, rather than specific problems. I don't know whether that's of any use to you, but it's all I can seem to find. -- Vardion 09:35, 21 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## "Anatole of Paris" by Sylvia Fine

To Whom It May Concern:

I am trying to locate sheet music for "Anatole Of Paris", which was performed by Danny Kaye, written by Sylvia Fine.

I've attempted to locate this sheet music but have had no luck, so far. I'm hoping you can help me.

All the best,

Try this link. RickK 02:15, 18 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Clive Revill? The actor? RickK 02:16, 18 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Questions

I wanted information about a pediatric nurse. I 'm going to a health career school but I'm not sure what a pediatric nurse does I want to do something that has to do with taking care of infants and toddlers in the hospitol's Could you please send me information on what type of nurse that it?

Well, that might be kinda hard since you didn't provide any kind of address. —Frecklefoot 20:33, 13 Feb 2004 (UTC)
What's the address needed for since any answers can be put here! But the person should have said which country the info is needed for.
Adrian Pingstone 22:51, 13 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Chances that person will actually stop back to check the response: 0.00001%. →Raul654 23:11, Feb 13, 2004 (UTC)
If they do come back, I'd recommend checking out www.napnap.org or the FAQ at www.pediatricnursing.com MK 21:27, 14 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## stomach banding

I have a friend that about 25 years ago had a ring put around the lower part of her stomach to aid her in losing weight as she was very overweight. Now, many years later she is having so many health problems as now she can only drink and if she eats solid foods it will not pass and she is losing a lot of weight and also is throwing up every day. Do you have any information that might aid her as I thought at one time you had people on that had problems from this procedure. A doctor told her the ring is closing and she will have to have 99% of her stomach removed. Can you help her? She is on disability and medicare! Any information would be so greatly appreciated.

Thank you.

Mari Howard

## Where do I find information on homelessness in Monroe County,NY?

From Village pump

Hi my name is Tonya my email address is atlmker2442@wmconnect.com

I was trying to find information on homelessness in Monroe County, NY I was thinking about doing a speech for college on this issue in my county. But I not sure where to look. If you could help me out that would be great or even if you could point me in the right direction.

Thank you Tonya

• Tonya, take a look at:

Good luck, Kingturtle 06:13, 19 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Look at Monroe County, New York. --Jiang
With all due respect, Jiang, there is nothing in that article to answer Tonya's question. She's legitimately asking if anyone can help her with a research query. Why give her and obvious and useless reference? -- Jmabel 06:02, 19 Feb 2004 (UTC)
It doesn't serve wikipedia's purpose to answer random question. Wikipedia is not a discussion forum. If it's relevant, then it has to do with our article on the subject. --Jiang 06:10, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Well, the question should probably have been on the Reference Desk, not the Village Pump, but it's a perfectly reasonable question, and the distinction between that page and this is often unclear to people not involved in this project. -- Jmabel 23:26, 20 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Enquiry

Is there any Overseas Branch of African Development Bank at 1 Canada Square, Canary Wharf London E14

Thank you

Saibal Chatterjee saibalda@yahoo.com

## richest - poorest countries

Looking for list of richest and poorest countries and also richest and poorest people.

What do you need exactly? The UNDP Human Development Index is probably the most generally useful. Mark Richards [5] 00:14, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Chinese architecture

I was trying to find the entry on Chinese architecture (and ideally with some pictures) but couldn't find it. Any suggestios? - and if there's no such item - and not even for any other country, Wiki might consider adding the category?

Jeff from L.A.

Surprisingly, we don't seem to have an article on Chinese architecture yet, although there's a link to the unwritten article from our architectural style article. Yet we do have articles for Japanese architecture, Cambodian architecture, Indian architecture, and Bhutanese architecture. It seems strange that we should be missing one on Chinese architecture, but now that it's been brought up here, maybe something will be done about it. (I'd try myself, if I knew anything about the topic). -- Vardion 07:26, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Conversion torque into pressure

Dear Reader, By accident I got on your Website, and I do not know if this is the right channel to post my question. If not, then could you please direct my to the right source? Thank you. Here is my problem. For a research project dealing with rehabilitation after cartilage repair in the human knee we want to compress the cartilage. By pushing the lower leg inward at the ankle , trying to bend the leg inward (with the knee joint being the point of rotation)we want to compress the inner side of the knee and its cartilage. We need a formula to find out the amount of pressure that will occur at the inside of the knee joint. The only known parameters are: The force applied at the distal end of the lower leg The length of the lower leg Both will give the amount of torque We also know the surface area on wich the pressure will be applied. But how can I convert this torque into pressure at the knee?

Thank you

Omer Matthijs boma@inode.at

I'm not sure if I totally understand your question, but let me give a crack at it anyway. So you're pushing at one end of a leg. If the leg's not accelerating, there's an equal and opposite force acting somewhere... let's assume the knee. If you can assume that the pressure acting over the surface area you have is constant, you can easily get it from P=F/A, where P is pressure, F is force, and A is area. Of course there's a torque too, just the force times the distance, but you don't even need to consider that. moink 05:00, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Question about Maria Theresa Reef and Ernest Legouve Reef (sorry)

First, sorry about posting a question here, but trying to edit the Ref Desk itself reported (with IE 4) "action not supported by Wiki" or something of that kind. Could someone else move this question there please?

The question itself concerns two "reefs", Maria Theresa and Ernest Legouve, that are in the South Pacific at roughly 150 west, 35 south. Rand McNally's Illustrated Atlas of the World does not indicate they are part of any country, which is rather strange considering all other tiny remote islands appear to be claimed (excepting near Antartica).

Interestingly, Maria Theresa features in two of Jules Verne's novels, Les enfants de Capitaine Grant and L'Ile Mysterieuse. In the former, it is also referred to as Tabor, its French name. Verne describes it as fairly large and having a forrest, but is that true or is it just coral? And who discovered it and Ernest Legouve?

Google is our friend, yes, but I got surprisingly little result. Any reliable information is appreciated; please answer at Ref. Desk itself. In fact, in return I'll try to create articles on both, in English and Dutch.

Thank you in advance, 194.109.186.161 15:59, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Well, I've moved it for you (from the discussion page) - I wonder what the problem was... - IMSoP 19:31, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Merged British and Irish parliaments

On what date did the combined British and Irish parliaments first meet after the 1801 Act of Union? Was an election called in Ireland or did the members of the Irish House simply relocate to Westminster? Mintguy (T) 20:30, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Cinnabar

I am aware that mercury is a very dangerous substance to work with and was therefore wondering if that same cautions would be necessary for working with cinnabar? Thanks. misscathy.seacoast@verizon.net

A quick google search on "cinnabar toxicity" suggests that it is dangerous. For instance, this fact sheet from the state government of Queensland, Australia, says that cinnabar mining represents a significant potential source of mercury exposure for workers.
Note: I have emailed this person with an answer to their question.--Robert Merkel 03:25, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Here in San Jose, California, it is advised that people not eat fish caught in local rivers because of the mercury in the fish because the rivers flow over cinnabar. Gentgeen 04:18, 1 Mar 2004 (UTC)

## Victoria , vancouver Island, British Columbia

Can anyone tell me how it was decided that Victoria located on Vancouver Island became the capital of the province of British Columbia. The only reference I can find is in a book that says after much drinking and trickery it was decided for Victoria. Can anyone tell me what happened. Thanks

This is total hearsay (I think perhaps I heard it from my father, who is sometimes right and sometimes completely wrong, and I can never tell the difference). After they decided that the 49th parallel would be the dividing line between Canada and the U.S., they didn't want the U.S. to claim Victoria (which is S. of the 49th parallel). So they put the provincial capital there, reasoning that there was no way the Americans would be so rude as to claim a provincial capital.

Before that, it was in New Westminster. moink 04:56, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Victoria , vancouver Island, British Columbia

Sorry my contact is lbhilliard@comcast.net. Thanks

## need help.....leonardo da vinci

Hello,
My name is Jessica. I have a question. I am doin a research project on Leonardo Da Vinci, and I want to find out his real name since Da Vini is not. Do you know of any source that can help me find out. I think it is impossible, its not stated anywhere. Maybe if I can even find out his father last name would be helpful If you can help thank you so much. You can email me at swtbttrfly@aol.com with any information\ Sincerly Desperate for this answer.....

See Leonardo da Vinci. The problem is that people didn't always have surnames... before surnames were developed people were known by the place where they live or by their father's name. So Leonardo was Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci - no surname, and yet his real name. - Nunh-huh 00:02, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)

I am willing to email this person, unless someone else wants to. →Raul654 00:05, Feb 23, 2004 (UTC)

## Roland Koning

(from user:137.186.203.169) - The Nederlands painter Roland Koning gave me a set of twelve reproductions of his paintings titled " Herstel Van De Havens Rotterdam" published in the year 1967. They are nicely mounted in their original booklet published by

Opgedragen Aan Officieren, Onderofficieren, Korporaals en Manchappen Van Den Munen Oprium Dienst Der Koninkluke Marine

He was a very famous Dutch Painter. The Queen of the Nederlands published a retrospective of his paintings and bestowed a national honor to him.

I am at the state in life when I am trying to part with peices of endearment and the memories of these particular items is enough. Roland Koning was my neighbor in Waasenaar. I would appreciate your informing me of who I might contact to find the value of these reproductions and where I could dispose of them.

Gordon Davis 210- Patterson Blvd SW Calgary, Alta T3h 3J6 Ph 403-246-5615

## Current name for a town in England

I am attempting to locate hospitals in the town of Heathcote Close where I friend of mine was born in 1968. This town is not listed on the A-Z list of towns in England.

Might the name have been changed? If so, are you aware of the current name?

Thank you ever so much for your time. This is all in conjunction with determining the time this person was born so a special gift of a birth chart may be given for their upcoming birthday. However, I've been notified that times of birth are not recorded on birth certificates in England and was directed to contact the hospital of birth for that information.

First, I do need to have the correct town so I may search out the time!

Have a lovely day and thank you for taking the time to read this as well as hopefully supplying an answer.

Sincerely,

Sherrill Curtis

Hi Sherrill, the only match that comes up on a Google search is Heathcote Hospital in Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. To be honest place names haven't changed that much in the UK since 1968 so your best bet would be to have a look at your friend's birth certificate, which would have the name of the hospital and the town and county it's in on it. Time of birth is only registered in the UK for multiple births. -- Graham  :) 11:06, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Hi Sherrill, Heathcote Close sounds more like a street name than a town - a search on Google.co.uk shows Heathcote Closes in Aldershot, Liverpool, Chester, Maidstone and Derby on the first page alone. If there was a town of the name I'd expect it to appear early, but I can't say I've ever heard of a town of that name. Try to get a look at your friends' birth certificate for the address of the birth (at that time not everybody was born in a hospital!). -- Arwel 11:23, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Hmm good point. This website is a good place to look for a street name in the UK. There are 8 possibilities. -- Graham  :) 11:28, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## A picture of a tree to identifiy

I was walking around Kenilworth Castle and spotted this redwood-like tree, which I didn't recognise but thought perhaps rather uncommon (at least in the United Kingdom); is it (a) identifiable and (b) worthwhile for the Wikipedia? (The images on that site are mine, and licensed as public domain, or GFDL if you prefer.)
James F. (talk) 14:09, 17 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Hi James, it could be a Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) because they have been fairly widely planted throughout western Europe for their timber. They only grow to about 45m max in Europe though, much taller in the US. It's difficult to tell without seeing the scale and the leaf form exactly what it is. -- Graham  :) 10:57, 23 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Could be, but I don't think it is. I come from an area where coastal redwoods are native (Humboldt County, California), and it doesn't quite look like one... the foliage is too "bunchy" and the branches are a bit too low. Do you perhaps have any closer pictures of the trunk or the needles/leaves? Garrett Albright 00:23, 29 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## military camouflage

When was military camouflage very first invented and who invented it?

A quick websearch releaved that the term itself comes from the French during World War I. They formed the first formal camafloughe unit. Houghton Mifflin has a pretty good write up on the history. →Raul654 01:32, Feb 24, 2004 (UTC)

## obsolete scientific theories

What are some obsolete scientific theories?

for this new page about theories that were once commonly accepted and are false.

## Searching for info on artists

Hello, My name is Trish, and my husband and I inherited 4 bronze sculptures a few years back. The problem is that I cannot find any info about them. I was hoping this site may be able to help. Any info would be appreciated. We can be e-mailed at lilfuny@yahoo.com.Thanks in advance the info is listed here that we have. Pecheur , par Picault (sculpt) E Picault (fisherman) La Sirene D. Puech ( mermaid/angel) Germaine B. ( man seeding) Terville (woman holding basket with shells in it.) All are at least 24 inches high, La sirene is really huge. Many Thanks, Trish Fortier

## Caesars Legions

Didn't Caesar have his LegioI Gallic and LegioIII Germanic, taken off him by the Senate before the Civil war campaigns against pompey?

I don't know which ones specifically were taken away, but you might want to look at List of Roman legions, Legio I, and Legio III Gallica. Adam Bishop 13:24, 24 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Area of a sector of an ellipse

Ok, I'm back to pester Wikipedia with more geometry questions.

I need the area of a "central" sector of an ellipse. That is, a sector with its vertex at the centre of the ellipse (NOT at a focus). I have the major and minor axes of the ellipse, and I can nicely orient it to be centered at the origin with it's axes along the coordinate axes. So it's equation is x=a*cos(theta), y=b*sin(theta).

I have the two angles (measured counter-clockwise from the x-axis) of the rays bounding the sector: theta1 and theta2.

If this needs arctans somehow, explain to me what to do to get the right branch of the arctan. I have the atan2 function available to me, that takes a numerator and denominator and figures out the quadrant from the signs, and returns an angle between -pi and pi.

Thanks! moink 18:23, 24 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Okay, the way I solved this is by considering theta1 to be equal to zero, and solving for theta2, henceforth θ, assuming it's less than π/2. Areas for other values of theta1 and theta2 can be calculated by appropriate additions and subtractions, thanks to the symmetry of the ellipse.

Drop a vertical line from the point (a cos(θ),b sin(θ)) to the x-axis. This separates the problem into the area of the triangle on the left, and an area under the curve on the right. The triangle on the left has an area of

${\displaystyle {\mbox{Triangle area}}={\frac {ab}{2}}\cos \theta \sin \theta }$

The hard part is the area under the curve.

${\displaystyle {\mbox{Area under curve}}={\frac {b}{a}}\int _{a\cos \theta }^{a}{\sqrt {a^{2}-x^{2}}}\,dx}$

which, according to MathWorld's article on ellipses, can be integrated analytically giving:

${\displaystyle {\mbox{Area under curve}}={\frac {b}{2a}}\left[x{\sqrt {a^{2}-x^{2}}}+a^{2}\sin ^{-1}\left({\frac {x}{|a|}}\right)\right]_{x=a\cos \theta }^{x=a}}$

Substituting in and solving gives

${\displaystyle {\mbox{Area under curve}}={\frac {ab}{2}}\left(\theta -\cos \theta \sin \theta \right)}$

So

${\displaystyle {\mbox{Total area}}={\frac {ab\theta }{2}}}$

-- Cyan 20:44, 24 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Hmmm. The formula I found (for area between zero angle and theta):
${\displaystyle {\mbox{Area}}(0,\theta )={\frac {AB}{2}}atan\left({\frac {A}{B}}\tan \theta \right)}$
As in Cyan's answer, then Area(theta1,theta2)=Area(0,theta2)-Area(0,theta1).
The problem is, as you say, choosing the correct branches of atan. If you're using atan2(x,y) (=atan(y/x)), then the cases are (assuming thetas between 0 and 2π), in pseudo-C:

 if( (θ<PI/2.0) || (θ>3.0*PI/2.0) ) { y=A*tan(θ); } else { y=-A*tan(θ); } 

if(θ<PI) { c=atan2(B,y); } else { c=2*PI+atan2(B,y); } 

Area=A*B*c/2.0; 

I think that should work. -- DrBob

Thanks to both of you... Cyan's has the appearance of being more right at first glance, based on trying it for the entire ellipse unless we can always say that atan(2*a*pi/b) is always 2*pi, regardless of the values of a & b, which somehow I doubt. I've put both of them into Matlab and compared them to a polyarea calculation, and they don't work. I'm beginning to think an analytical solution to this isn't actually possible. moink 20:00, 25 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Argh, you're right. My solution doesn't work. Sorry, I should have checked it. OK, rather than trusting my rusty integration skills, I did a search and found somebody else's formula. This is closer to Cyan's than my first attempt:
${\displaystyle {\mbox{Area}}(0,\theta )={\frac {AB}{2}}\left\{\theta -\operatorname {atan} \left[{\frac {\sin(2\theta )}{\cos(2\theta )+\left({\frac {B+A}{B-A}}\right)}}\right]\right\}}$
This seems to work unless A=B (i.e. a circle), in which case you can just use Area(0,θ)=A^2 θ/2. You don't need to do anything special to select the branch of atan() this time. Hope this is more helpful -- DrBob 17:05, 26 Feb 2004 (UTC)

I used MATLAB to check my formula too, and I find that numerical integration matches the analytical formula. I will post the code I used to User talk:moink. -- Cyan 18:53, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## ABBA's Fernando

Would anybody happen to know which war, and which crossing of the Rio Grande, is referred to by ABBA's song Fernando? (The song's lyrics are available here. This page also contains a comment by one bruno64 providing an explanation of sorts, but one that isn?t very convincing.) Thanks, Itai 23:41, 24 Feb 2004 (UTC)

This is nothing if not a guess, but maybe it's the Mexican-American War? This was an expansionist war from 1846-1848 which led to Mexico seceding a huge amount of territory to the US, including present-day California and much of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The first battles took place along the Rio Grande. Garrett Albright 00:18, 29 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Thank you. I have considered this when I was Googling for an answer, and, now that I reread the lyrics, I'm thinking you may be right. This explanation fits "[t]he roar of guns and cannons", the crossing of the Rio Grande, and, alas, the defeat. Such a choice for a subject is surprising, as popular bands will usually try to avoid debated subjects (although I don't know what's the current American outlook on this). One can never know, I suppose. -Itai 13:03, 29 Feb 2004 (UTC)
As far as I know, most historians and scholars, American and otherwise, now think that this war, whatever the presumed cause, was little more than manifest destiny in action. And I agree; interesting choice for a subject for a song, especially over a century after the fact! Reminds me of They Might Be Giants' song about James K Polk -- who, by random coincidence, was the President during the Mexican-American War. :) Garrett Albright 20:06, 29 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Hydrochloric acis

Why does a test tube cool down when hydrochloric acid is added to baking soda?

Enthalpy of solvation. It takes energy for the water in the HCl solution to disolve the baking soda, the energy is gathered from the heat in the liquid, test tube, and the surrounding air (very little), making the tube feel colder (really, less hot). However, it should quickly rise as the heat released by the acid-base reaction will be much greater than that lost to solvation. Gentgeen 17:47, 25 Feb 2004 (UTC)
It's interesting to note that a release of heat causes an increase in entropy and hence is often favourable. For a reaction to take place which causes cooling, the entropy decrease must be outweighed by some other entropy increase. In this case, the dissolved baking soda has more disorder, and hence more entropy, than the powder. -- Tim Starling 00:32, Feb 26, 2004 (UTC)

Actually, I think it refers tthe Spanish Civil War in the 1930's. There is a Rio Grande in Spain as well, and the Republican Forces, sorry to say, lost to the Fascists.

## Carbon Copy (cc:)

Can you tell me, in current times, is it appropriate to replace cc: at the bottom of correspondence with xc: (xerox copy)? I have not heard this; however, one of our staff members has told me this is the case.

Speaking as a computer engineer, I've never heard of this. →Raul654 17:55, Feb 25, 2004 (UTC)
Speaking as an ex-IP litigator, since Xerox is a registered trademark, I'm sure the Xerox Corporation would not endorse this practice. "xc:" refers to "xerographic copy" as some of the following Google hits discuss: http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&q=%22xerographic+copy%22+%22xc%22 . Note that the use of "xc" is considered pedantic. The more common and less pedantic approach is simply to translate "cc" to "courtesy copy". Again, see Google. Nick Gall 17:55, Feb 25, 2004

## black history

i will like to have information on Denmark Vessey and Nat Turner

We have an article on Nat Turner. And I believe the other is spelled Denmark Vesey (Last name has one 's', not two). →Raul654 17:57, Feb 25, 2004 (UTC)

## Official UFO reports

Are there any official reports with solid proofs about seeing UFO or close contacts with extraterrestrials?

Project Bluebook (for which we apparently do not have an article) was a detailed study into UFO sitings. It was conducted by the US Airforce in the 1960s. If I recall correctly, they debunked most (but not all) of the UFO sitings up until that time. →Raul654 00:27, Feb 26, 2004 (UTC)

## NES vs. Famicom

does the famicom games play on an american super NES?

Yes, but the Famicom cartridges have a differant form factor, so it requires a adapter, I believe Honeywell made one. Thunderbolt16

The question seems a little confused to me. As I understand it, the Famicom was the Japanese name for the NES, while the Super Famicom was the Super NES or SNES. So is the question whether NES games will play on a SNES; or whether (Super) Famicom games play on a (Super) NES? - IMSoP 11:14, 26 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## William Grantham - Tracing Ancestry as a Mountie

Hi Everyone and thank you for giving me a great opportunity to contact you.

My name is Mark Grantham and I live in New Zealand and am currently researching my family history.

I am trying to track down a Great Uncle called William Grantham who was born in England and left to supposedly join the NWMP where he was killed at a young age.

William Grantham Born - London England 1884 - 1885. He came alone without his family. His father was a horsekeeper so he definitely had the pedigree to join the NWMP.

I am sorry but this is all the information that I can gather at the moment and I would really appreciate it if somebody could point me in the right direction as to who I can contact re old records etc, if indeed any still remain.

One point worth noting is that his brother Thomas was fighting in the Boer War with the Northumberland Fusiliers and he might have had ideas to join him over there. I recall that the NWMP Police fought in South Africa.

Kind Regards Mark Grantham

## Michael Landon's final request

Q. Michael Landon............ TV star When he was dying he had a particular sound track or music album that he had playing all the time until he actually passed away. Do you know what that music was? I would appreciate an answer please. - Gordon Screen from Australia

## Vacancy in Master of the Queen's Music?

The post of Master of the Queen's Music is the musical equivalent, in Great Britain, to that of Poet Laureate. In 1975 Queen Elizabeth II appointed Malcolm Williamson of Australia to the post and he died on March 2, 2003. So it has been nearly a year since that time and I see no information here on Wikipedia about a successor having been appointed. What gives?

Please send info via e-mail to iopisa@aol.com. Thank you very much.

Isa

And while you're at it add it to Master of the Queen's Music as well (see also Talk:Master of the Queen's Music). --Camembert
According to the article here (originally from The Independent), dated 12 February 2004, the post is still vacant - they haven't chosen a successor yet. I've emailed this to the person who asked the question, and I'll mention it on the page itself. -- Vardion 00:47, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)
Sir Peter Maxwell Davies has been appointed as the Master of the Queen's Music according to The Times and the Scotsman. Wikipedia pages have been updated. User:Seaeagle04

## MS-DOS 6 Setup discs

Having inherited a computer on which all I could get was an 'a' dos prompt, I thought I would start from scratch by reformatting and using some old MS floopy setup discs. I booted on with disc 1 in the 'a' drive and followed through the formatting and set up process until I was told to insert disc 3. To my horror I could not find disc 3! I am now 58% through the DOS set up and in a worse state than when I started. As I could not continue, I had to exit set up and having now reformatted the c drive I cannot proceed any further. Does anyone out there have MS-DOS 6 disc 3 Version 6.22 or can any knowledgeable person advise me how to load an operating system now that I have reformatted the 'c' drive and having no access to the cd rom drive.

You need, IIRC, an ATAPI CD-ROM driver on a floppy disk. --Dante Alighieri | Talk 01:10, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Webster's Dictionary

To Whom It May concern:

Hello my name is Candy Loera I live in Los County of Southern California.About 5 years ago I came across a Webster's Dictionary that was published around 1909 but it contains 2005 pages. It also has biographies of Noah Webster but written by different people .This book has of great importance and I would like to know who I can contact regarding this book.I wouldn't want this book to go to waste so it is of great importance that can get any information on this subject.

                        Sincerly ,
candy loera

Candy, I don't know exactly what you mean by not wanting it to go to waste. You could contact a local college or university, especially one with a "rare books" or "special collections" room, to see if anyone is interested in preserving it. If you're just looking for someone to use it, plenty of people here would volunteer to take it and keep it safe (I, for one, would). If you're looking to find out more about the book and its origins, try a local rare books dealer, usually listed under "Books--Antiquarian and Rare" in the phone book. Any used bookstore ought to be aware of local antiquarian book dealers who could answer your questions. Unless you can be more specific about your question, that's the most specific answer I can give. Jwrosenzweig 23:24, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Arabic names of countries

Please tell me the English names of the following countries - 1. Al-Seen, 2. Al-Urdun, 3. Al-Jamaheeriya Al-Udhma, 4. Al-Suweed, 5. Al-Mager, 6. Jemhoreyat Jenoob Afrikia, 7. Al-Maghreb, 8. Kubros

## English Names of the

Please tell me the English names of the following countries Arabic names - 1. Al-Seen, 2. Al-Urdun, 3. Al-Jamaheeriya Al-Udhma, 4. Al-Suweed, 5. Al-Mager, 6. Jemhoreyat Jenoob Afrikia, 7. Al-Maghreb, 8. Kubros

My e-mail is monalan@hotmail.com

Thank you ever so much.

In anticipation,

Mona

Al-Seen is China, Al-Urdun is Jordan, Al-Jamaheeriya Al-Udhma is Libya, Al-Suweed is Sweden, Al-Mager is Hungary, Jemhoreyat Jenoob Afrikia is South Africa, Al-Maghreb is Morocco, and Kubros is Cyprus. (I'll email this to the questioner, too). -- Vardion 14:42, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## crime scene sattelite photos

I am currently involved an investigation where two person's are being charged with the murder of three young children by drowning. The incident took place in a lake adjacent to a nuclear power plant. With the heightened security since 9/11, would it be feasible to pursue the possibility there could be sattelite photos available?

??? "involved in an investigation"? "murder of three young children by drowning"? "nuclear power plant"? You must be joking! Satelite photos of what? Mark Richards 06:36, 6 Mar 2004 (UTC)

## Philosophers on counterfactual conditionals

It certainly appears that David Lewis is a big name in contemporary philosophical analysis of counterfactual conditionals. Have other interesting analyses come up since his book (published in the 70s, I think)? Is he the best author to start with in this field, or would you suggest someone else? --Ryguasu 18:12, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)

• From my notes, there's also J. L. Mackie:
• Counterfactuals and Causal Laws, in R. Butler ed. Analytical Philosophy First Series.
• Truth, Probability, and Paradox chapter 3.

The above came before Lewis, though. Lewis is perhaps a bit metaphysical for many people's tastes - he'll be dealing with possible worlds etc... Evercat 18:19, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## Step show?

What is a step show? -- Seth Ilys 22:43, 27 Feb 2004 (UTC)

Can you give any context? -- Jmabel 07:04, 28 Feb 2004 (UTC)
I can't really be sure without context, but the only usage of "step show" that I know of relates to the so-called "Greek" fraternities and sororities at American universities. These are the ones that use Greek letters for their name, such as (to take some random examples that we've got articles about) Delta Kappa Epsilon, Phi Iota Alpha, or Sigma Phi Epsilon. A step show, I believe, is a sort of performance or production used by some fraternities/sororities for recruiting purposes. This FAQ has a question "What are step shows?" which might help. -- Vardion 11:03, 28 Feb 2004 (UTC)

## classification of missile systems

sir/madam i really enjoy "wikipedia" ,and contents .i am mechanical engineering graduate from BAngalore (india).i little unsure about classification of missile systems . my question is

'"whether STINGER MISSILE SYSTEM comes under a category of cruise missile systems ?"'

i request you to kindly answermy query . waiting in anticipation

regards vishal banakar vishal7717@yahoo.co.in

No. The Stinger is principally a short-range anti-aircraft missile. Cruise missiles attack ground targets at a range of hundreds of kilometres. Arwel 15:40, 28 Feb 2004 (UTC)
That should be tens or more of miles. Exocet and early Harpoon anti-ship missiles had ranges in the tens of miles and were cruise missiles. A good general rule for a cruise missile is having sustained, powered, mostly level flight. Stinger and other anti-aircraft issiles to have a cruise phase of flight, potentially for a hundred or more kilometers, but the lack of power during that time generally excludes them from being considered cruise missiles. Jamesday 21:26, 2 Mar 2004 (UTC)